The Story of Silk: From Empress Leizu to the Silk Road!

Short version

The beginning of the silk dates back thousands of years, so long ago that history and stories are truly intertwined. Silk is a core part of Ancient China's history, and the story of silk has been written by Confucius, one of China's most famous philosophers and politicians…

Once upon a time, there was a beautiful Chinese empress, Leizu (also known as Xi Ling Shi). She sat under a Mulberry tree drinking her tea, and a single silkworm cocoon dropped into her small cup.


The hot water slowly softened the fibres and loosened the soft strands. When Leizu gently lifted the cocoon from her teacup, it began to unravel. Leizu's keen eyes and inquisitive mind noticed that the cocoon was made out of a single long strand of fibre, and she thought to herself that she could weave this beautiful thread into a piece of fabric.


Empress Leizu shared her unbelievable discovery with her husband, the Yellow Emperor Huangdi, who encouraged her to explore this further. By observing the life of a silkworm in her grove of Mulberry trees, she learned and eventually started to raise the silkworms.

She grew a team around her to support this initiative, and it is even said that she invented the silk reel, a device used to spin the silk fibres from multiple cocoons into one thread, and the silk loom, a tool used to weave silk.


This innovative Empress, now known as the Goddess of the Silkworm and the Silkworm Mother, is said to have been the entrepreneur of sericulture, the process of farming silkworms to create silk fabrics. Whilst Confusis' writings form the story of silk from 2700BC, archaeologists have confirmed that silk fabrics have been found dating back hundreds of years before Empress Leizu's alleged discovery…

The story of silk eventually started to spread globally despite the complex terrain gating China and word of this stunning and durable fabric got around to ancient Egypt, Persia, Greek and Roman Empires. Silk Road has been one of the longest and most flourishing trade routes in the world, and its name is no mistake! In order to trade, this route was established and due to the volume and importance of trading this precious fabric, it was aptly named the Silk Road (despite the other valuable goods China had to offer such as tea and paper!).

Until 500AD, China was the only country which had the natural resources and knowledge to produce silk and it was only after Emperor Byzantine hired monks to smuggle silkworm eggs and sericulture knowledge to Constantinople did the production of silk become more widespread.

silk story

Other than a few technological advances to speed up the production process, silk today is still roughly produced the same way as it was thousands of years ago, and Silkinc is doing its best to stay true to this millennium of experience whilst putting in the time and resource to see what more we can learn and do with this phenomenal fibre.

The Detailed Long Story

The story of silk spans thousands of years. While the beginning is shrouded in myth and legend, its impact on culture and commerce is undeniable. According to Confucius, one of ancient China's most influential philosophers, the discovery of silk dates back to around 2700 BC.

However, archaeological evidence suggests the use of silk even earlier, indicating that history and myth are deeply intertwined when it comes to this lustrous fiber.

The Legend of Empress Leizu

According to legend, the story of silk begins with Leizu, a beautiful Chinese empress. As she sat beneath a mulberry tree sipping tea one day, a silkworm cocoon tumbled into her cup. The hot liquid softened the cocoon fibers, loosening its threads. When Leizu lifted the cocoon from her tea, it began to unravel into a long, smooth filament. 

Leizu immediately recognized the potential of this slender fiber. She shared her discovery with her husband, the Yellow Emperor Huangdi, who encouraged her to explore it further. By observing silkworms feeding on mulberry leaves in her imperial grove, Leizu learned all she could about their life cycle. Before long, she began raising silkworms herself to harvest their valuable silk.

According to legend, Leizu invented both the silk reel and the loom, tools integral to producing silk fabric. The reel spins and combines filaments from multiple cocoons into a single lustrous thread. The loom weaves these threads into shimmering sheets of fabric. Thanks to these innovations, Leizu pioneered sericulture, the cultivation of silkworms for silk production. For this, she became known as both the Goddess of the Silkworm and the Silkworm Mother. 

While Leizu's story blends history and myth, evidence confirms the production of silk in China up to 5,000 years ago, long before the rule of the legendary empress. Regardless of its veracity, Leizu's tale offers insight into silk's exalted status in Chinese culture. To this day, the empress represents ingenuity and serves as a silk icon.

Empress Leizu's Innovations

According to legend, Empress Leizu pioneered sericulture in China around 2,700 BC. After her serendipitous discovery of silkworm silk, Leizu studied the life cycle of silkworms feeding on mulberry leaves. This understanding allowed her to raise silkworms herself and harvest their precious cocoons.

Key innovations attributed to Leizu include:

  • Silk reel: A tool used to combine and spin silk filaments from multiple cocoons into a single lustrous thread. This mechanism allowed for larger, stronger silk threads ideal for weaving.
  • Loom: A frame used to efficiently weave silk threads into fabric. Traditional Chinese looms wove silk threads into smooth, delicate fabrics sought after for their beauty and comfort.

These tools allowed workers to harvest silkworm cocoons and transform silk filaments into refined fabrics. China carefully guarded these silk secrets, maintaining a global monopoly on silk production for thousands of years. Leizu's innovations established sericulture infrastructure that enabled China's silk supremacy. Even today, silk reels and looms remain integral to silk production. 

While Leizu's legend may be more myth than fact, its themes resonate. The story conveys silk's exalted status and China's pride in this coveted artifact of ingenuity. It also reflects the entrepreneurial spirit that built an empire on a filament. Though embellished, the tale recognizes seminal technological advances that transformed silk from curiosity to commodity.

Historical Context and Archaeological Findings

While Leizu's legend dates silk production to around 2700 BC, archaeological evidence reveals even earlier silk cultivation in China. Fragments of primitive silk fabrics have been found dating back to 3600 BC, 900 years before Leizu's supposed discovery. These early artifacts confirm China as the birthplace of silk production, though its precise origins remain uncertain.

Remarkably preserved silk fabrics were recovered from tombs at Yangshao in Henan Province, China. Using carbon dating, researchers confirmed these vibrantly colored silk fragments date back over 5,000 years. Additional digs have uncovered silk relics from several other Neolithic sites across China.

While aspects of Leizu's story are more myth than fact, these archaeological treasures support the legend's central truth. China discovered silk production independently thousands of years before other cultures. By 2700 BC, sericulture was already well established there. Silk rapidly grew into a foundational pillar of the economy and culture.

Discoveries of 6,000-year-old silk artifacts predating Leizu force us to reconsider Confucius' writings on the empress as silk's inventor. However, they confirm China's sole mastery of silk production for millennia. They also reveal silk's technical complexity exceeding the capabilities of other ancient civilizations. Without China's guarded silk secrets, the rest of the world lacked the materials and knowledge to attempt silk production.

Silk's Global Spread

For centuries, China retained exclusive control of silk production. Chinese silk fabrics were exported along trade routes to elite consumers willing to pay exorbitant prices. By the Han Dynasty (206 BC - 220 AD), demand for this extravagant material spread across Eurasia and the Mediterranean.

The Silk Road arose as the preeminent trade route linking China to major commercial hubs. This 4,000 mile network of land and sea trade channels earned its name from its most coveted cargo - Chinese silk. Caravans heading west from China transported silk and other exotic goods to distant lands hungry for Eastern luxury.

China guarded its monopoly on silk production for many centuries. Its silk secrets remained safe until around 550 AD, when the Byzantine Empire managed to smuggle silkworm eggs and techniques out of China. According to legend, monks sent as emissaries to China concealed silkworm eggs and mulberry seeds in hollow walking canes. They delivered their precious cargo to Constantinople, cracking China's millenia-long stranglehold on silk.


Soon Constantinople became the epicenter of Europe's emerging silk industry. However, for hundreds of years China maintained superior techniques and materials compared to Constantinople's novice silk producers. By introducing silk along the Silk Road, China transformed global luxury trade and spread its cultural influence through a beloved national treasure.

Modern Silk Production

Today silk remains a coveted luxury material produced much as it was thousands of years ago. The same species of silkworm still spins its lustrous cocoon as a natural precursor to silk fabric. However, technologies like the silk reel and loom first developed in China still form the core of modern silk production.

Key steps to produce silk cloth include:

  • Cultivating silkworms - Silkworms consume mulberry leaves until they spin protective silk cocoons to pupate in.
  • Harvesting cocoons - Cocoons are gathered once pupation is complete.
  • Degumming - Cocoons are boiled or steamed to soften silk fibers and remove sericin proteins.
  • Unraveling and spinning - Silk filaments are unwound from cocoons and spun into threads using a silk reel.
  • Weaving - Silk threads are interlaced on a loom to create fabric.
  • Dyeing - Finished silk cloth can be dyed bright colors using natural or synthetic dyes.

While mechanization has enhanced efficiency, the fundamental techniques endure. Sericulture still relies on natural silk spinning by silkworms, not synthetic manufacturing. Mulberry leaves remain the sole food of silkworms, and harvesting cocoons precedes unraveling their precious silk. Ancient tools like the silk reel and loom continue playing vital roles.

Silkinc embraces both the timeless techniques and entrepreneurial spirit at the heart of silk's legacy. They honor traditions perfected over millennia while innovating to enhance sustainability and function. Their patented silk fabrics blend ancient Chinese wisdom with modern technology to create one-of-a-kind textiles.

Silk and More

Silk's origins lie shrouded in equal parts history, legend, and mystery. While the veracity of Empress Leizu's legend is uncertain, it encapsulates key themes that remain relevant thousands of years later. The story conveys silk's exalted status in Chinese culture and the reverence surrounding its discovery. It also reflects China's entrepreneurial ingenuity, which transformed silk from a novelty into a pillar of economy and trade.

Above all, Leizu's legend affirms China as the sole pioneer of silk cultivation for millennia. Archaeological evidence confirms China's sole mastery of sericulture, with silk fragments dating over 5,000 years old recovered across the country. The export of silk fabrics and spread of silk production techniques followed many centuries later. Though mythologized, the empress represents China's pride in producing this treasured material that charmed the ancient world.

Today silk remains treasured worldwide for its beauty and luxury. While new technologies have enhanced production, the basic process endures much as Leizu pioneered according to legend. Silkworms still produce the bulk of valuable silk fibers using techniques developed thousands of years ago.

Silkinc carries forward this age-old tradition even as they innovate and refine it. Their patented fabrics balance ancient wisdom and cutting-edge technology to create silk textiles tailored to contemporary lifestyles. By honoring silk's heritage as they reinvent it, Silkinc proves the timeless value of this storied fiber. Just as in ancient China, silk remains a source of creativity, comfort and beauty in modern life.

Read More

← Older Post Newer Post →